First you need to know that a planted aquarium needs substrate. The substrate is placed on the bottom of the aquarium and its main role is to support plants. It should have a thickness of 5-7 cm to allow plant roots to grow freely. The substrate is accumulating food debris and excrement of fish that play the role of nutrients for plants.
The substrate can be composed of gravel, sand or peat covered with sand. Do not use sand or gravel just fine because it suffocates roots and doesn’t allow penetration of different residues that can act as nutrients. Also do not use limestone gravel because it increases hardness. The easiest way to see if gravel is limestone is the test with vinegar. If gravel is limestone, when it reached the vinegar a chemical reaction takes place easily recognized. Limestone gravel and stones are used only in aquariums with African cichlids because they prefer tougher water.
The most common and easiest substrate to maintain is composed of fine gravel (as grain of rice) because it cleans easily and does not accumulate quite a lot of waste. In this type of substrate plants grow quite well but it is indicated that from time to time we add nutrients. The arrangement of the substrate may depend on the taste but the slope would be the dedicated version. The substrate should have the thickness of less than before (2-3 cm, is matter of aesthetics) and grow toward the back of the aquarium.
Before starting to decorate the aquarium with objects found at stalls sellers think that what you have in your home is a corner of nature which should be an exact copy of it after you finished the decoration. Therefore I do not recommend castles, divers, plastic shells and other fools who are also found in commerce.
Aquarium is a corner of nature, and in nature the main decorative elements are plants, stones and wood. Therefore in our tank we can arrange different rocks to form caves or walls to give the fish a feeling of safety. A fish that has no plants or different decorative elements around which he can be hidden is a stressed fish and can get sick easily. In the absence of stones or plants, broken clay hotchpotch or ceramics, bricks, can be used.
Plants, are the most important component most beautiful decor. As plants dry there are all sorts of dimensions, shapes and colors, so there are plants adapted to the aquatic environment. There are plants that grow considered for beginners with no special conditions needed for advanced plants that grow only if we provide a friendly environment. Plants generally need substrate surface but there are plants that don’t requite these. Besides substrate plants need adequate light for 8-12 hours a day, CO2 is produced by fish.
Before buying a plant you must be careful where you buy it. The snail eggs from plant leaves can carry bacteria that can be toxic for different fish and make them ill.
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